The UN Environment Programme warns that the Caspian "suffers from an enormous burden of pollution from oil extraction and refining, offshore oil fields, radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants and huge volumes of untreated sewage and industrial waste introduced mainly by the Volga River". Progress was notable in the fourth Caspian Summit held in Astrakhan in 2014. [21], The rising level of the Caspian Sea between 1994 and 1996 reduced the number of habitats for rare species of aquatic vegetation. Three football clubs representing the Caspian Sea region at the European competitions failed to win their last games and are now at the bottom of their respected groups after five games played. However, Iran insists on a single, multilateral agreement between the five nations (aiming for a one-fifth share). In the North Caspian, the majority of the islands are small and uninhabited, like the Tyuleniy Archipelago, an Important Bird Area (IBA), although some of them have human settlements. Caspian Sea Library -The Library provides background papers, maps, charts and statistics on export options for Caspian oil. [8], In Persian since the Persian middle age, to today, whereby the country is Iran, it is generally known as درياى خزر, Daryā-e Khazar. Encontre diversos livros escritos por Aras, Bulent, Croissant, Michael com ótimos preços. The region output about 1.4–1.5 million barrels per day plus natural gas liquids in 2001, 1.9% of total world output. Russia officially opposes the project on environmental grounds. The length of the coastline of these countries:[61], Five states are located along about 6500 km of Caspian coastline. Compre online Investing in the Caspian Sea Region: Opportunity and Risk, de Macauley, Martin na Amazon. The Caspian Sea Shipping Company CJSC has two fleets plus shipyards. [74] Frete GRÁTIS em milhares de produtos com o Amazon Prime. Encontre diversos livros escritos … [38], Later, in the Tang dynasty, the sea was the western limit of the Chinese Empire. The world's first offshore wells and machine-drilled wells were made in Bibi-Heybat Bay, near Baku, Azerbaijan. [72], The convention grants jurisdiction over 24 km (15 mi) of territorial waters to each neighboring country, plus an additional 16 km (10 mi) of exclusive fishing rights on the surface, while the rest is international waters. is 386,400 km2 (149,200 sq mi) and the surface is about 27 m (89 ft) below sea level. Caspian Sea Discourse-Commissioned by the Council on Foreign Relations in 1999 to formulate a set of recommendations for U.S. policy on the Caspian region. Language: Name: Name source: English: Caspian Sea: Wikipedia : PlaceType: Lake : Latitude: 41° 50' 51.5" N (41.84763°) Longitude: 50° 21' 24.5" E (50.3568°) [22] About 62% of the species and subspecies are endemic, as are 4–6 genera (depending on taxonomic treatment). [56] However, analysts note that the pipelines would bypass Russia completely, thereby denying the country valuable transit fees, as well as destroying its current monopoly on westward-bound hydrocarbon exports from the region. Primitive canals connecting the Volga Basin with the Baltic were constructed as early as the early 18th century. 79 likes. If a lake there are no such obligations. (2009). [20], The magnitude of fossil fuel extraction and transport activity in the Caspian also poses a risk to the environment. The Caspian has characteristics common to both seas and lakes. The Shah Deniz offshore gas field beneath the Azerbaijani sector of the Caspian Sea is the one and only source of the gas supplies to the SGC mega-pipeline. Pollution from the oil industry and, to a lesser extent, dams on rivers draining into it have harmed its ecology. [22] Among the more than 50 genera in the lake proper, 3–4 are endemic: Anatirostrum, Caspiomyzon, Chasar (often included in Ponticola) and Hyrcanogobius. The Caspian Sea Region and Energy Resources By Gelb, Bernard A., Twyman, Terry Rayno To get The Caspian Sea Region and Energy Resources eBook, make sure you click the link listed below and save the ebook or have accessibility to other information which are highly relevant to THE CASPIAN SEA REGION AND ENERGY RESOURCES book. By the beginning of the 20th century, Baku was the centre of international oil industry. Changes in the regional environment have influenced regional economies, particularly obvious in the impacts on fish stocks. [56] Recently, both Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan have expressed their support for the Trans-Caspian Pipeline. The list of cargoes transferred via the port includes rolled metal, lumber, palletized cargoes, bulk bags, various bulk dry cargoes, grain cargoes, oil, equipment, large-capacity and long cargoes, intermodal containers and others. Oil wells were being dug in the region as early as the 10th century to reach oil "for use in everyday life, both for medicinal purposes and for heating and lighting in homes". These were published in 1720 by the Russian Academy of Sciences.[44]. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (, peaceful nuclear construction experiments, Framework Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Caspian Sea, "Welcome to the Caspian Sea Level Project Site", "Caviar pool drains dry as Caspian Sea slides towards catastrophe", "Культурно-исторический контекст археологического комплекса Гобустан", "Azerbaijan: Land of Fire and Flood – Ancient Mariners and a Deluged Landscape – Rock Art Evidence of a Marine Inflow", "The Ice Age Rise and Fall of the Ponto Caspian: Ancient Mariners and the Asiatic Mediterranean", "Gobustan Petroglyphs – Methods & Chronology", Lion and Gazelle: The Mammals and Birds of Iran, "Cosmas Indicopleustes, Christian Topography, §132", "The Development of the Oil and Gas Industry in Azerbaijan, "Back to the Future: Britain, Baku Oil and the Cycle of History, "Caspian Sea Map, Caspian Sea Location Facts History, Major Bodies of Water", "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects", "Commission of the Russian Federation for UNESCO", "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency", "Caspian Oil and Gas: Production and Prospects", "LUKOIL starts up V. Filanovsky in the Caspian Sea", "Volume of oil tanker transportation in Caspian Sea to increase", Russia Tries to Scuttle Proposed Trans-Caspian Pipeline, "WikiLeaks cables: BP suffered blowout on Azerbaijan gas platform", "WikiLeaks Reveals BP's 'Other' Offshore Drilling Disaster", https://gsaz.az/en/articles/view/105/Characteristics-of-Caspian-Sea, http://www.azadliq.org/contentinfographics/%C4%B1nfographics/26613064.html, https://www.isna.ir/news/97052211612/%D8%B3%D9%87%D9%85-%D9%88%D8%A7%D9%82%D8%B9%DB%8C-%D8%A7%DB%8C%D8%B1%D8%A7%D9%86-%D8%A7%D8%B2-%D8%AE%D8%B2%D8%B1-%DA%86%D9%82%D8%AF%D8%B1-%D8%A7%D8%B3%D8%AA, https://www.livescience.com/57999-caspian-sea-facts.html, "8.3 The Status of the Caspian Sea – Dividing Natural Resources Between Five Countries", "Five states sign convention on legal status of Caspian Sea", "Caspian Sea states to host sea-related investment forum every two years", "Are the Littoral States Close to Signing an Agreement on the Legal Status of the Caspian Sea? In addition, some 25 chemical tankers carrying diesel fuel produced at the Turkmenbashi Oil Processing Complex arrived in the Astrakhan sea port since the beginning of the year. Russia and Turkmenistan have agreed to strengthen regional transportation and logistics capabilities via the body of water that separates their borders, the Caspian Sea. Altitude: 72 feet below sea level (22 m below sea level). From the same artworks, auks, like Brunnich's Guillemot could also have been in the sea as well, and these petroglyphs suggest marine inflow between the current Caspian Sea and the Arctic Ocean or North Sea, or the Black Sea. The Caspian seal (Pusa caspica) is the only aquatic mammal and is endemic to the Caspian Sea, being one of very few seal species that live in inland waters, but it is different from the those inhabiting freshwaters due to the hydrological environment of the sea. “The challenge now is to establish a regular ferry service so that we can work,” said Igor Zagrebelniy, who chairs the Association of Shipping Agents and Shipowners of the Astrakhan Region, who was quoted in a report from Russia-based news agency Astrakhan-24.ru. Saudi Arabia, Russia Reach Compromise on Further Output Cuts. A second affluent, the Ural River, flows in from the north, and the Kura River flows into the sea from the west. The word Caspian is very likely a name for the Caspi, an ancient people who lived to the southwest of the sea in Transcaucasia. The world energy markets were influenced by Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan, as they became strategically crucial in this sphere, thus attracting the largest share of FDI (foreign direct investment). Countries on the Caspian region, particularly Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan, have a universal education legacy left by the Soviet Union. In deep sea fishing, diving and well-tapping the extent to a depth less than 200 metres is notable, namely 240,000 km². The surface averages about 25 metres below sea level as of the year 2010. The seabed, on the other hand, remains undefined, subject to bilateral agreements between countries. The Garabogazköl embayment, which dried up when water flow from the main body of the Caspian was blocked in the 1980s but has since been restored, routinely exceeds oceanic salinity by a factor of 10.[12]. Its vast natural resources, oil and natural gas among them, have attracted widespread international interest since the early 1990s. Old Russian sources use the Khvalyn or Khvalis Sea (Хвалынское море / Хвалисское море) after the name of Khwarezmia.[10]. [14] The northern portion of the Caspian Sea typically freezes in the winter, and in the coldest winters ice forms in the south as well. "The Caspian Sea and the lands around it are emerging again as a focus region in global affairs. The remaining 10 bcm is allocated for Europe. Compre online The Geopolitics of Energy in the Caspian Sea Region: The Challenges Faced by Azerbaijan, de Mammadov, Ilgar, Hess, Andrew C. na Amazon. [41] By the 16th century, Europeans were aware of the rich oil and gas deposits locally. This paper illustrates the need for objective assessment of transboundary risks on a regional scale. In 1998, Dick Cheney commented that "I can't think of a time when we've had a region emerge as suddenly to become as strategically significant as the Caspian."[55]. 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